Here's Exactly How Much Water to Put in Your Whisky
September 28, 2017 –––––– Charles K. Cowdery
Should you add water to your whisky? Some scientists say adding water yields a more flavorful whisky, but the amount is a personal choice. Legendary bourbon distiller Pappy Van Winkle believed 50% ABV (100 proof) was the ideal alcohol concentration for whiskey. He resisted selling anything at lower proof because, he said, “I see no sense in shipping water all the way around the country.”Van Winkle recognized, of course, that some people liked additional water with his whiskey, so he suggested adding the whiskey to the water instead. “That way you make a poor thing better rather than a fine thing worse,” he reasoned.Of course, there is always water in whisky. By U.S. law, bourbon, rye, and corn whiskey can be distilled to no greater than 80% ABV. That means the distillate leaving the still contains at least 20% water, and for most distillers it is closer to 30%, because the sugars, phenols, lactones, esters, acetaldehydes and other chemicals that give whisky its flavor attach themselves to the water, not the ethanol. Whisky without water in it is vodka. More water is added before bottling to adjust the whisky to the preferred proof. Van Winkle's bourbon wasn't 50% ABV by accident—he made it that way.So should you add additional water to your whisky (or the other way around)? That is entirely up to you—it's a personal choice. There is no other right answer. But once you've decided the whisky proof that suits your palate and offers the most personal enjoyment, there is a way to accurately water your whisky to taste.Most people who add water to whisky just wing it. They pour some whisky, and splash in a little water. Some people say to add just a drop or two to “open up” the whisky, but there are benefits to greater dilution. Most straight spirits bottled at 40% ABV or more give off an “alcohol bloom” that can block your appreciation of other flavors. Adding a little room temperature water dampens the alcohol so those other flavors can come through. Impressions of sweetness and bitterness on the palate also decrease in concert with temperature. (But again, it's your choice: drink it cold if you like it that way.) Because bourbon is so robust, experts such as Booker Noe say you can dilute it up to 1:1 (equal parts whiskey and water) without losing the essential flavor structure of the spirit. Of course, it's helpful to know exactly how much water to add to reach your ideal proof, or perhaps to adjust two whiskies to the same proof for a better comparative tasting.